Here is a compiled list of all terms I ever defined in a post.

Music - The cyclical occurrence of Pitch and Timbre over a period of time.
  • Beat - A beat is a single specific moment of music.
  • Breakdown - A section of the song different from the main section included to provide contrast and to break up the repetitiveness of the piece.
  • Distortion - The sound is distorted, or disfigured providing texture and flavor.
  • Note - Not to be confused with a Beat, a note is an instance of music. Notes have characteristics such as pitch and length.
  • Phrase - A section of music regardless of length. (Beats are word count, Notes are specific words, and Phrases are paragraphs to a Song, which is an essay).
  • Pitch - Frequency of a note. The higher the pitch, the faster the frequency, the higher the note sounds.
  • Progression - A series of notes that tends to be repeated.
  • Range - The relative area of a frequency. A "low-range" note would have a frequency below 500hz. A "high-range" note would have a frequency much larger.
  • Register - Similar to range, an area of frequency. Low register contains lower notes, aka lower frequencies.
  • Reverberation - the remnant of a sound after the sound has already been played. Similar to an echo.
  • Scale - A specified progression of notes in a musically appropriate manner (not every combination of notes is a scale).
  • Synth Pads or Synthesizer Pads - A simple electronically produced sound.
  • Call and Response - A structure of music where one or more sounds "call" or play something which is followed by the "response" of another sound. The two sounds will never be from the same source. A singer cannot call and respond to himself. 
  • Measure - A small section of music usually containing four beats.
  • Riff - A musical section of a song that is often repeated and is more rhythmic than the melody.
  • Square-wave - A fundamental sound wave, shaped like a square. 
  • Staccato - Abrupt and short sounds.
  • Syncopated - When the emphasized beats of a song are shifted from 1 and 3 of a measure to 2 and 4.
  • Timbre (Pronounced TAM-BER) - The specific sound of a sound.